Governing the Commons

Governing the Commons Author Elinor Ostrom
ISBN-10 9781316453926
Year 2015-09-23
Pages
Language en
Publisher Cambridge University Press
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The governance of natural resources used by many individuals in common is an issue of increasing concern to policy analysts. Both state control and privatization of resources have been advocated, but neither the state nor the market have been uniformly successful in solving common pool resource problems. After critiquing the foundations of policy analysis as applied to natural resources, Elinor Ostrom here provides a unique body of empirical data to explore conditions under which common pool resource problems have been satisfactorily or unsatisfactorily solved. Dr Ostrom uses institutional analysis to explore different ways - both successful and unsuccessful - of governing the commons. In contrast to the proposition of the 'tragedy of the commons' argument, common pool problems sometimes are solved by voluntary organizations rather than by a coercive state. Among the cases considered are communal tenure in meadows and forests, irrigation communities and other water rights, and fisheries.

Governing the Commons

Governing the Commons Author Elinor Ostrom
ISBN-10 9781107569782
Year 2015-10-31
Pages 298
Language en
Publisher Cambridge University Press
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Tackles one of the most enduring and contentious issues of positive political economy: common pool resource management.

Governing the Commons

Governing the Commons Author Elinor Ostrom
ISBN-10 0521405998
Year 1990-11-30
Pages 280
Language en
Publisher Cambridge University Press
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Congratulations to Elinor Ostrom, Co-Winner of The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009! The governance of natural resources used by many individuals in common is an issue of increasing concern to policy analysts. Both state control and privatization of resources have been advocated, but neither the state nor the market have been uniformly successful in solving common pool resource problems. After critiquing the foundations of policy analysis as applied to natural resources, Elinor Ostrom here provides a unique body of empirical data to explore conditions under which common pool resource problems have been satisfactorily or unsatisfactorily solved. Dr. Ostrom first describes three models most frequently used as the foundation for recommending state or market solutions. She then outlines theoretical and empirical alternatives to these models in order to illustrate the diversity of possible solutions. In the following chapters she uses institutional analysis to examine different ways--both successful and unsuccessful--of governing the commons. In contrast to the proposition of the tragedy of the commons argument, common pool problems sometimes are solved by voluntary organizations rather than by a coercive state. Among the cases considered are communal tenure in meadows and forests, irrigation communities and other water rights, and fisheries.

Understanding Institutional Diversity

Understanding Institutional Diversity Author Elinor Ostrom
ISBN-10 1400831733
Year 2009-11-13
Pages 376
Language en
Publisher Princeton University Press
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The analysis of how institutions are formed, how they operate and change, and how they influence behavior in society has become a major subject of inquiry in politics, sociology, and economics. A leader in applying game theory to the understanding of institutional analysis, Elinor Ostrom provides in this book a coherent method for undertaking the analysis of diverse economic, political, and social institutions. Understanding Institutional Diversity explains the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which enables a scholar to choose the most relevant level of interaction for a particular question. This framework examines the arena within which interactions occur, the rules employed by participants to order relationships, the attributes of a biophysical world that structures and is structured by interactions, and the attributes of a community in which a particular arena is placed. The book explains and illustrates how to use the IAD in the context of both field and experimental studies. Concentrating primarily on the rules aspect of the IAD framework, it provides empirical evidence about the diversity of rules, the calculation process used by participants in changing rules, and the design principles that characterize robust, self-organized resource governance institutions.

Working Together

Working Together Author Amy R. Poteete
ISBN-10 9781400835157
Year 2010-04-12
Pages 376
Language en
Publisher Princeton University Press
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Advances in the social sciences have emerged through a variety of research methods: field-based research, laboratory and field experiments, and agent-based models. However, which research method or approach is best suited to a particular inquiry is frequently debated and discussed. Working Together examines how different methods have promoted various theoretical developments related to collective action and the commons, and demonstrates the importance of cross-fertilization involving multimethod research across traditional boundaries. The authors look at why cross-fertilization is difficult to achieve, and they show ways to overcome these challenges through collaboration. The authors provide numerous examples of collaborative, multimethod research related to collective action and the commons. They examine the pros and cons of case studies, meta-analyses, large-N field research, experiments and modeling, and empirically grounded agent-based models, and they consider how these methods contribute to research on collective action for the management of natural resources. Using their findings, the authors outline a revised theory of collective action that includes three elements: individual decision making, microsituational conditions, and features of the broader social-ecological context. Acknowledging the academic incentives that influence and constrain how research is conducted, Working Together reworks the theory of collective action and offers practical solutions for researchers and students across a spectrum of disciplines.

Institutions Institutional Change and Economic Performance

Institutions  Institutional Change and Economic Performance Author Douglass C. North
ISBN-10 9781139642965
Year 1990-10-26
Pages
Language en
Publisher Cambridge University Press
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Continuing his groundbreaking analysis of economic structures, Douglass North develops an analytical framework for explaining the ways in which institutions and institutional change affect the performance of economies, both at a given time and over time. Institutions exist, he argues, due to the uncertainties involved in human interaction; they are the constraints devised to structure that interaction. Yet, institutions vary widely in their consequences for economic performance; some economies develop institutions that produce growth and development, while others develop institutions that produce stagnation. North first explores the nature of institutions and explains the role of transaction and production costs in their development. The second part of the book deals with institutional change. Institutions create the incentive structure in an economy, and organisations will be created to take advantage of the opportunities provided within a given institutional framework. North argues that the kinds of skills and knowledge fostered by the structure of an economy will shape the direction of change and gradually alter the institutional framework. He then explains how institutional development may lead to a path-dependent pattern of development. In the final part of the book, North explains the implications of this analysis for economic theory and economic history. He indicates how institutional analysis must be incorporated into neo-classical theory and explores the potential for the construction of a dynamic theory of long-term economic change. Douglass C. North is Director of the Center of Political Economy and Professor of Economics and History at Washington University in St. Louis. He is a past president of the Economic History Association and Western Economics Association and a Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has written over sixty articles for a variety of journals and is the author of The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History (CUP, 1973, with R.P. Thomas) and Structure and Change in Economic History (Norton, 1981). Professor North is included in Great Economists Since Keynes edited by M. Blaug (CUP, 1988 paperback ed.)

Foundations of Social Capital

Foundations of Social Capital Author Elinor Ostrom
ISBN-10 1849802491
Year 2010
Pages 590
Language en
Publisher Edward Elgar Pub
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'As theoretical paradigms develop, there comes a time when they need careful synthesis, deep reflection and wise criticism. It is now that time for the arguments regarding social capital. Political scientists are fortunate that a scholar as pre-eminent as Elinor Ostrom, and her able student T.K. Ahn, have taken the lead in undertaking this task. They have pulled together a fine collection of essays and added an insightful and pedagogically sound overview. the collection is likely to find its place in the book bags of all scholars concerned with the contributions of this literature to our discipline.' - Joe Oppenheimer, University of Maryland, College Park, US 'Ostrom and Ahn do us the great service of bringing together a varied, rich array of central works on social capital, many of which have been relatively inaccessible. the idea of social capital is still very much a work in progress, as these contributions from a broad array of disciplines demonstrate. Having this collection available will help focus further development of that idea.' - Russell Hardin, New York University and Stanford University, US

The Drama of the Commons

The Drama of the Commons Author Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change
ISBN-10 9780309082501
Year 2002-02-15
Pages 534
Language en
Publisher National Academies Press
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The "tragedy of the commons" is a central concept in human ecology and the study of the environment. It has had tremendous value for stimulating research, but it only describes the reality of human-environment interactions in special situations. Research over the past thirty years has helped clarify how human motivations, rules governing access to resources, the structure of social organizations, and the resource systems themselves interact to determine whether or not the many dramas of the commons end happily. In this book, leaders in the field review the evidence from several disciplines and many lines of research and present a state-of-the-art assessment. They summarize lessons learned and identify the major challenges facing any system of governance for resource management. They also highlight the major challenges for the next decade: making knowledge development more systematic; understanding institutions dynamically; considering a broader range of resources (such as global and technological commons); and taking into account the effects of social and historical context. This book will be a valuable and accessible introduction to the field for students and a resource for advanced researchers.

Green Governance

Green Governance Author Burns H. Weston
ISBN-10 9781139620598
Year 2013-01-21
Pages
Language en
Publisher Cambridge University Press
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The vast majority of the world's scientists agree: we have reached a point in history where we are in grave danger of destroying Earth's life-sustaining capacity. But our attempts to protect natural ecosystems are increasingly ineffective because our very conception of the problem is limited; we treat 'the environment' as its own separate realm, taking for granted prevailing but outmoded conceptions of economics, national sovereignty and international law. Green Governance is a direct response to the mounting calls for a paradigm shift in the way humans relate to the natural environment. It opens the door to a new set of solutions by proposing a compelling new synthesis of environmental protection based on broader notions of economics and human rights and on commons-based governance. Going beyond speculative abstractions, the book proposes a new architecture of environmental law and public policy that is as practical as it is theoretically sound.

Future of the Commons

Future of the Commons Author Elinor Ostrom
ISBN-10 0255366531
Year 2012
Pages 107
Language en
Publisher Inst of Economic Affairs
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This short book provides a brief introduction to the work of the late Elinor Ostrom, 2009 Nobel Laureate in economics. Her work is of vital importance in understanding how we can manage difficult environmental problems without top-down government regulation. As Professor Ostrom suggests, examples such as European Union fisheries illustrate the difficulties of approaching the management of common-pool resources with the mindset that government regulation can be a panacea. The monograph features a lecture given by Elinor Ostrom just before she died, as well as explanations of her work, its relevance and practical examples by other eminent authors. The authors help bring this crucial economics which is extremely important for all those with an interest in tackling environmental problems related to common-pool resources. This area is often ignored in mainstream economics textbooks, but is of huge practical relevance in both developed and less-developed countries.

Institutional Theory in Political Science

Institutional Theory in Political Science Author B. Guy Peters
ISBN-10 9781441153807
Year 2011-12-15
Pages 232
Language en
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing USA
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Institutional Theory in Political Science provides an in-depth analysis of contemporary institutional theory, an essential tool to understand the world of politics and government. Written by B. Guy Peters, a prominent expert in the field, the book argues that the new institutionalism comprises eight variations on the theme of institutional analysis. Through a series of questions, the author assesses the possibility of a unified theory within institutionalism and its potential as a paradigm for political science. This new edition incorporates the most recent developments in the research on the various institutionalisms. It also includes a new chapter that brings into the discussion themes of discursive politics and constructivism. Although the focus is on political science, attention is paid to institutionalism in other disciplines. Institutional Theory in Political Science, 3rd Edition, reflects the state of the field today while building on the foundations set in the previous editions. This unique work will be of value to anyone studying institutionalism, as well as political institutions, and public administration.

Trust and Reciprocity

Trust and Reciprocity Author Elinor Ostrom
ISBN-10 9781610444347
Year 2003-02-27
Pages 424
Language en
Publisher Russell Sage Foundation
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Trust is essential to economic and social transactions of all kinds, from choosing a marriage partner, to taking a job, and even buying a used car. The benefits to be gained from such transactions originate in the willingness of individuals to take risks by placing trust in others to behave in cooperative and non-exploitative ways. But how do humans decide whether or not to trust someone? Using findings from evolutionary psychology, game theory, and laboratory experiments, Trust and Reciprocity examines the importance of reciprocal relationships in explaining the origins of trust and trustworthy behavior. In Part I, contributor Russell Hardin argues that before one can understand trust one must account for the conditions that make someone trustworthy. Elinor Ostrom discusses evidence that individuals achieve outcomes better than those predicted by models of game theory based on purely selfish motivations. In Part II, the book takes on the biological foundations of trust. Frans de Waal illustrates the deep evolutionary roots of trust and reciprocity with examples from the animal world, such as the way chimpanzees exchange social services like grooming and sharing. Other contributors look at the links between evolution, cognition, and behavior. Kevin McCabe examines how the human mind processes the complex commitments that reciprocal relationships require, summarizing brain imaging experiments that suggest the frontal lobe region is activated when humans try to cooperate with their fellow humans. Acknowledging the importance of game theory as a theoretical model for examining strategic relationships, in Part III the contributors tackle the question of how simple game theoretic models must be extended to explain behavior in situations involving trust and reciprocity. Reviewing a range of experimental studies, Karen Cook and Robin Cooper conclude that trust is dependent on the complex relationships between incentives and individual characteristics, and must be examined in light of the social contexts which promote or erode trust. As an example, Catherine Eckel and Rick Wilson explore how people's cues, such as facial expressions and body language, affect whether others will trust them. The divergent views in this volume are unified by the basic conviction that humans gain through the development of trusting relationships. Trust and Reciprocity advances our understanding of what makes people willing or unwilling to take the risks involved in building such relationships and why. A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust

Institutions and Social Conflict

Institutions and Social Conflict Author Jack Knight
ISBN-10 0521421896
Year 1992-10-30
Pages 234
Language en
Publisher Cambridge University Press
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Many of the fundamental questions in social science entail an examination of the role played by social institutions. Why do we have so many social institutions? Why do they take one form in one society and quite different ones in others? In what ways do these institutions originally develop? And when and why do they change? Institutions and Social Conflict addresses these questions in two ways. First it offers a thorough critique of a wide range of theories of institutional change, from the classical accounts of Smith, Hume, Marx and Weber to the contemporary approaches of evolutionary theory, the theory of social conventions and the new institutionalism. Second, it develops a new theory of institutional change that emphasizes the distributional consequences of social institutions. The emergence of institutions is explained as a by-product of distributional conflict in which asymmetries of power in a society generate institutional solutions to conflicts. The book draws its examples from an extensive variety of social institutions.

Reasonable Democracy

Reasonable Democracy Author Simone Chambers
ISBN-10 0801483301
Year 1996
Pages 250
Language en
Publisher Cornell University Press
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In Reasonable Democracy, Simone Chambers describes, explains, and defends a discursive politics inspired by the recent work of Jurgen Habermas. In addition to comparing Habermas's ideas with other non-Kantian liberal theories in clear and accessible prose, Chambers develops her own views regarding the role of discourse and its importance within liberal democracies. Beginning with a deceptively simple question, "Why is talking better than fighting?" Chambers explains how the idea of talking provides a rich and compelling view of morality, rationality, and political stability. She considers talking as a way for people to respect each other as moral agents, as a way to reach reasonable and legitimate solutions to disputes, and as a way to reproduce and strengthen shared understandings. In the course of this argument, she defends modern universalist ethics, communicative rationality, and what she calls a discursive political culture, a concept that locates the political power of discourse and deliberation not so much in institutions of democratic decision-making as in the type of conversations that go on around these institutions. While discourse and deliberation cannot replace voting, bargaining, or compromise, Chambers argues, it is important to maintain a background moral conversation in which to anchor other activities. As an extended illustration or "case study," Chambers examines the conversation about language rights that has been going on for twenty years between English and French Quebec residents. A culture of dialogue has proved a positive and powerful force in resolving some of the disagreements between these two linguistic communities.