Molecular Biology of RGS Proteins, a volume of Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, will include historical discussion of RGS proteins, the role of RGS proteins in addiction, depression and Parkinson's disease and the biology and functional regulation of RGS9 isoforms. This publication further discusses RGS proteins in cellular signaling, protein control in lymphocyte function, and alternative splicing of RGS transcripts and nuclear RGS proteins, offering the latest in research of RGS proteins.
RGS Protein Physiology and Pathophysiology describes the current, state-of-the-art research occurring in the laboratories of leaders in the RGS protein field that utilize genetic mouse models to interrogate the function of RGS proteins in vivo. Each chapter describes the elucidated role of a specific RGS protein or family of RGS proteins in normal physiology and/or disease with particular emphasis on how these discoveries inform healthcare and drug discovery. The work is a timely reference as drugs targeting G protein coupled receptors represent 40% of currently marketed therapeutics. Brings together information on the current state of the RGS protein field Contains comprehensive descriptions of the known pathophysiological and physiological functions of RGS proteins, the first such undertaking Gives particular emphasis to the ways these discoveries inform healthcare and drug discovery
The Purpose Of This Book Is To Provide An Introductory Text For Understanding The Fundamental Principles Of Computer Graphics. Some Salient Features Are Chapters On Data Structures Along With Examples For Manipulating Pictures/Graphical Objects; Interactive Graphics Covering Input/Output Devices And Systems That Facilitate The Man-Machine Graphic Communication With Emphasis On Device-Independent Graphic Programming; 2-D And 3-D Graphics; Applications Of Graphics To Real-Life Problems, Such As Business Graphics, Graph Plotting, Line Drawing, Image Animation, 3-D Solid-Modeling, Fractals And Multi-Media. This Edition Includes Chapters On Multi-Media And Virtual Reality.
Regulator of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins modulate G protein-mediated signaling by accelerating the GTPase activity of Galpha subunits, thereby shortening the lifetime of active signaling molecules, i.e. Galpha-GTP and free Gbetagamma complexes. Despite extensive studies for a decade, our understanding of the physiological functions of RGS proteins is still in its infancy. The lack of pharmacological inhibitors for RGS proteins and functional redundancy among multiple family members (>30) imposes tremendous challenges for the application of antisense or genetic knockout strategies in assessing the role of RGS proteins in physiological processes. Moreover, another level of complexity lies in the interaction of RGS proteins and multiple isoforms of G proteins. Therefore, we employed RGS-insensitive mutations (RGSi) in Galpha subunits that disrupt the Galpha-RGS interaction and introduced them into embryonic stem (ES) cells by homologous recombination. This approach allowed me to study the role of endogenous RGS proteins as a class in a Galpha isoform-specific manner without alterations in expression of mutant proteins. Cardiac automaticity was examined in spontaneously contracting ES cell-derived cardiocytes (ESDC) in vitro, in an isolated heart perfusion system, and in vivo in intact animals. I demonstrate that endogenous RGS proteins potently modulate the chronotropic control by adenosine A, and muscarinic M2 receptors, which differentially utilize Galpha o and Galphai2 and associated downstream effectors. The G-protein-coupled inward rectifying K+ currents are strongly modulated by RGS proteins and play an essential role in M2 receptor-induced bradycardia, whereas A1, receptors seem to preferentially couple to Galphao and other downstream effectors. Telemetry recording in conscious, unrestrained mice revealed hyperactivity, disrupted thermoregulation, and enhanced basal cardiac function, which strongly suggest alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) of Galphai2RGSi mutant mice. Using an isolated heart perfusion system, I confirmed that RGS proteins modulate intrinsic cardiac automaticity independent of CNS and vascular inputs. Furthermore, enhanced Galphai2 signaling by blocking RGS actions also results in the development of atrioventricular block. Thus, endogenous RGS proteins play an important role in regulation of cardiovascular and neurobehavioral function and may also be implicated in pathophysiological processes.
This volume continues the in-depth treatment of the topic and covers the RSG protein superfamily including RZ, R4, R7, R12, RhoGEF, and GRK, as well as other heterotrimeric G-protein signaling regulators. Table of Contents -RZ Subfamily -R4 Subfamily -R7 Subfamily -R12 Subfamily -RhoGEF Subfamily -GRK Subfamily -Other RGS proteins -Activators -Inhibitors -Other Modulators
Alan V. Smrcka presents a collection of cutting-edge methods for investigating G protein signaling from a variety of perspectives ranging from in vitro biochemistry to whole animal studies. Among the readily reproducible techniques presented are those for the purification of G proteins and effectors enzymes, assays of these purified G proteins and effector enzymes, and for the study of G proteins interactions with effectors in intact cells. Additional methods are provided for assaying G protein coupled receptor structure, function, and localization, and for studying the physiological roles for endogenous G proteins.